ancient Peruvians (massive Incan agricultural Civilization) bred alpacas as a source of wool and the ancient Salish Sea peoples, as non-agricultural peoples, bred woolly dogs from the common dog to establish control over the production of the yarn they needed for blanket weaving. Common to what is now known as British Columbia and northern coastal Washington, the Coast Salish people bred these long-haired dogs for their fur and kept them separate from other breeds to prevent intermixing. A “wool dog” skull recovered by researchers in 2018. last month in the Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. Unauthorized distribution, transmission or republication strictly prohibited. The Coast Salish live in northern Washington and southern British Columbia, and according to tribal lore, their ancestors raised a strange breed of canine. The Coast Salish blanket that was recently found to contain woolly dog hair. r/SeattleWA is the active Reddit community for Seattle, Washington and the Puget … Given the deterioration of the diagnostic cuticle pattern, a different approach is Originally, the Salish obtained wool high in the mountains where the mountain goats spent their summers and shed their old … We ask you to keep your comments relevant and respectful. Carbon isotope analysis of a Salish blanket used in the burial of a child revealed that the hair was consistent with an “We look forward to sharing the blanket with weavers and other researchers, so that it can be reconnected to the indigenous knowledge systems from which it came.”. But distinguishing domestic hounds from their wild cousins can be difficult, and most specimens from previous Northwest Pacific Coast zooarchaeological studies lacked species identification, said Madonna Moss, another co-author from the University of Oregon. Lydia Hwitsum, a former elected Cowichan chief, said she learned traditional weaving from her mother, who explained to her daughter that dog wool was historically incorporated into yarn-making “to make the fibers even stronger.”. This advertisement has not loaded yet, but your article continues below. The Coast Salish "wool dog" is an interesting example of selective breeding of dogs for a useful trait, in this case, their long, fair hair which could be cut or plucked for weaving. tap here to see other videos from our team. It did not look like mountain goat. The swuqw’alh is a blanket woven mostly from mountain goat wool. “I wondered if it could be dog wool,” she said. Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest once bred dogs in large numbers and sheared them for wool. 1423 Proteomics and Coast Salish … But with colonization came imported textiles. Wilkes expedition Dog Colonial blanket NMAI 144864 c. 1860 Yale, B.C. Similarly William Elmendorf learned that the "wool dog" of the Coast Salish people living along Hood Canal "was a special, separate breed with long hair shorn and used in woven textiles," and was known by a name that means "long-haired dog" (The Structure of Twana Culture, 95-97). When the dogs … Photo by Chilliwack Museum and Archives Booen Fonds P. Coll 120 No. But examination under an electron microscope at the University of Victoria in British Columbia in 2019 confirmed what Mr. Williams, who died in 2017, had said: The blanket, dated to about 1850, contained dog wool, lending credence to stories from the oral tradition of the Coast Salish Indigenous peoples of a special dog that was long kept and bred for its fleece. The small, long-haired wool dog and the coyote-like village dog were deliberately maintained as separate populations. The pelt of a Coast Salish woolly-dog, collected in 1859. There is speculation around why so few blankets made from Salish Wool Dog hair still exist today. The Liz Hammond-Kaarremaa, Coast Salish spinning researcher, looking over a 200-year-old Coast Salish blanket. There may have been some left on northern Vancouver Island up until 1900. Comments may take up to an hour for moderation before appearing on the site. Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest once bred dogs in large numbers and sheared them for wool. The blanket at the Burke Museum was at one time owned by Judge James Wickersham, a collector who lived in Tacoma, Wash., and later in Alaska. The Burke’s blanket is the only object in a Northwest museum confirmed to have been woven from woolly dog hair, which is enormously exciting to researchers and Coast Salish weavers who will finally have the opportunity to study an ancient craft in the place where it … Native American & Indian Wool Blanket fashion for Men, Women & Home. Tessa Campbell via The New York Times. For use on both your sofa and your bed, or simply as a carry around day to day blanket. It suggests the vast majority of canid bones from 210 Pacific Coast archaeological sites, from Oregon to Alaska, were not from wild wolves, coyotes or foxes. A study published last month in the Journal of Anthropological Archaeology adds to the evidence for the industry that produced this dog wool, as well as its ancient roots. 149k members in the SeattleWA community. She found them in seven of the specimens. Warm stylish and cosy. But while the dog’s existence has been well established, it has been more difficult to prove its hair was used in blankets, said Hammond-Kaarremaa. These knee-high wool dogs weren’t combed like modern pooches but sheared like sheep. The analysis by Iain McKechnie, a zooarchaeologist with the Hakai Institute, and two co-authors examined data collected over 55 years from over 16,000 specimens of the dog family across the Pacific Northwest. In 1940 the last known descendent of the Wool dogs passed away. Weavers examining it were unconvinced, suspecting it was mountain goat wool. We have enabled email notifications—you will now receive an email if you receive a reply to your comment, there is an update to a comment thread you follow or if a user you follow comments. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. The last is of dog hair yarn mixed with a little goat wool, and is thought to have been collected by Lewis and Clark in 1804-1806, and is now in the National Museum, Washington (pl. Coast Salish frequently mention a special breed of domestic dog whose hair was extensively utilised in the manufacture of blankets, definite identification of an existing blanket in which dog hair is an important con- stituent has been elusive. Detailed knowledge of the dog wool industry has long been lost. While the Indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest are often associated with their traditional harvesting of salmon, whales, herring and clams, their animal husbandry on land is less well known. With the arrival of the Hudson’s Bay Company and cheaper, easily available sheep’s wool blankets, the woolly dogs were allowed to interbreed with other dog species and the species died out around the 1860s, said Hammond-Kaarremaa. ORGANIZED SALISH BLANKET PATTERN BY MARY LOIS KISSELL EAVING has an interesting story to tell in relation Salish nobility blankets. The Salish used mountain goat wool, or SAH-ay, as the main source of fiber for weaving. The dog’s hair, or “wool,” was the fiber woven to make blankets. Starting in the 1990s, she noticed that Pacific Northwest domestic dog remains were of two distinct size categories — large and small. The study highlights their underappreciated breeding of animals — particularly dogs — for wool. If you don't see it please check your junk folder. Wool Blanket design features contemporary Coast Salish art by Native American artist Louie Gong. However, the Salish Wool Dogs allowed for the Coast Salish Peoples to have easily accessible wool for textiles and blankets before sheep (and sheep wool) were imported by European settlers around 1862. Coast Salish First Nations kept the small woolly dogs, which had thick, long hair, separated from hunting dogs in either corrals or on small islands, and used their hair in textiles, she explained. But examination under an electron microscope at the University of Victoria in British Columbia in 2019 confirmed what Mr. Williams, who died in 2017, had said: The blanket, dated to about 1850, contained dog wool, lending credence to stories from the oral tradition of the Coast Salish Indigenous peoples of a special dog that was long kept and bred for its fleece. University of Victoria/W̱SÁNEĆ Leadership Council. © 2020 Vancouver Sun, a division of Postmedia Network Inc. All rights reserved. The blankets were used as bedding, clothing, ceremonial regalia, and as room dividers, floor mats, and outer wall insulation. A small tear allowed her to see the individual threads and she was able to identify sinew, likely from a deer or elk, and cedar fibres, but she also saw some kind of wool. “It’s very useful for the weavers and spinners today to give them an idea of what was done in the past,” said Hammond-Kaarremaa. A woolly-haired dog in British Columbia captured in a photograph during the first half of the 20th century. One of Dr. McKechnie’s co-authors, Susan Crockford, has studied dog bones in archaeology sites for many years. The Salish Woolly dog was an important part of Coast Salish life throughout southern Vancouver Island, the Strait of Georgia, and Washington State, as the dogs’ hair was used to weave clothing and blankets. Goat (Figure 2) Classic blanket NMAI 155607 Before 1927 Saanich Salish, Goat/vegetable SW of Vancouver fibre Island, B.C. Goat/sheep (Figure 3) Hybrid blanket NMNH 221408 Before 1862 Dog/goat Plain blanket NMNH 311257 Before 1919 Goat Plain blanket NMAI 138571 Before 1925 Fraser River, B.C. The retired professor was working on a research project for a masters program in spinning last fall when she received a fellowship to study the Burke Museum’s blanket. Mountain goat wool blanket featured at MoA A recently opened exhibit at the Museum of Anthropology (MoA) features a Coast Salish mountain goat wool blanket that was woven before 1908. language, Dr. George Gibbs, recorded the name of the dog wool blankets as Ko-matl’-ked .6 The wool dog was virtually extinct by 1870. Though the blanket’s creator isn’t known, it was purchased that year at Musqueam Indian Band by a researcher. 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